Whitehead, Frances A.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Decision theory and linear sequential unmasking in forensic fire debris analysis: A proposed workflow”. Forensic Chemistry (2022) Vol. 29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2022.100426


Thurn, Nicholas A.; Wood, Taylor; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Classification of ground-truth fire debris samples using artificial neural networks” Forensic Chemistry (2021) Vol. 23. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2021.100313

Sigman, Michael E.; Williams, Mary R.; Thurn, Nicholas; Wood, Taylor “Validation of ground truth fire debris classification by supervised machine learning”, Forensic Chemistry (2021) Vol. 26. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2021.100358

Corbally, Michelle A.; Williams, Mary R.; Chappell, Jessica N.; Sigman, Michael E. “Detecting Chemical Vapor Diffusion through Firefighter Turnout Gear”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health” (2021) Vol. 18(9). http://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094833


Sigman, M. E.; Williams, M. R. “Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis” WIREs Forensic Sci. (2020), https://doi.org/10/1002/wfs2.1368.


Williams, M. R; Hetzel, S. S. (2019) Chapter 5: Variation Within Ignitable Liquid Classes, Forensic Analysis of Fire Debris and Explosives. K. Evans-Nguyen, K. Hutches (Eds). Springer

Allen, Alyssa; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Application of likelihood ratios and optimal decision thresholds in fire debris analysis based on a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model”, Forensic Chemistry (2019) Vol. 16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2019.100188

Sigman, Michael E.; Williams, Mary R. “Advances in Fire Debris Analysis”, Separations (2019) Vol. 6(1). http://10.3390/separations6010013


Turner, Dee A.; Williams, Mary; Sigman, Michael A.; Goodpaster, John V. “A Comprehensive Study of the Alteration of Ignitable Liquids by Weathering and Microbial Degradation”, Journal of Forensic Sciences (2018) Vol. 63(1), p58-65. http://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13527

Coulson, Richard; Williams, Mary R.; Allen, Alyssa; Akmeemana, Anuradha; Ni, Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E. “Model-effects on likelihood ratios for fire debris analysis”, Forensic Chemistry (2018) Vol. 7, p38-46. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.12.008

Thurn, Nicholas; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Application of Self-Organizing Maps to the Analysis of Ignitable Liquid and Substrate Pyrolysis Samples”, Separations (2018) Vol. 5(4) http://doi.org/10.3390/separations5040052

Allen, Alyssa; Williams, Mary R.; Thurn, Nicholas A.; Sigman, Michael E. “Model Distribution Effects on Likelihood Ratios in Fire Debris Analysis”, Separations (2018) Vol. 5(3). http://doi.org/10.3390/separations5030044


Dennis, Dana-Marie K.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Investigative probabilistic inferences of smokeless powder manufacturers utilizing a Bayesian network”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 3, p41-51. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2016.12.001

Akmeemana, Anuradha; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Major chemical compounds in the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection and Substrate databases”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 5, p91-108. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.07.002

Kindell, Jessica H.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Biodegradation of representative ignitable liquid components on soil”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 6, p19-27. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.09.003


Dana-Marie K. Dennis, Mary R. Williams, Michael E. Sigman “Assessing the evidentiary value of smokeless powder comparisons”, Forensic Sci. International (2016) Vol. 259, p179–187.

Sigman, M. E.; Williams, M. R., “Assessing Evidentiary Value in Fire Debris Analysis by Chemometric Approaches”, Forensic Sci. International, (2016) 264, 113 – 121.


Lopatka, M.; Sigman, M. E.; Sjerps, M. J.; Williams, M. R.; Vivo-Truyols, G. “Class-conditional feature modeling for ignitable liquid classification with substantial substrate contribution in fire debris analysis”, Forensic Sci. International. (2015), 252, 177 – 186.


Waddell, EE; Williams, MR; Sigman, ME* “Progress Toward the Determination of Correct Classification Rates in Fire Debris Analysis II:  Utilizing Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA),” J. Forensic Sci. (2014) 59(4), 927-935.

Waddell, EE; Frisch-Daiello, J; Williams, MR; Sigman ME*, “Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Ignitable Liquids”, J. Forensic Sci. (2014) 59(5), 1198-1204.

Jessica L Frisch-Daiello, Erin E Waddell, Mary R Williams, Michael E. Sigman* “Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions” Forensic Science International (2014) 236, 84-89.


Waddell E. E.;  Song E. T.; Rinke C. N.; Williams M. R.; Sigman* M. E. “Progress Toward the Determination of Correct Classification Rates in Fire Debris Analysis” J. Forensic Sci. (2013) 58(4), 887-896.


Rinke, CN; Williams MR; Brown C; Baudelet M; Richardson M; Sigman ME* “ Discriminant analysis in the presence of interferences: Combined application of target factor analysis and a Bayesian soft-classifier,” Analytica Chimica Acta, (2012) 13, 753:19-26.

Williams, M. R.; Sigman*, M. E.; Lewis, J.; McHugh Pitan, K. “Combined Target Factor Analysis and Bayesian Soft-Classification of Interference-Contaminated Samples: Forensic Fire Debris Analysis,” Forensic Sci. Int., (2012), 222, 373 – 386.


Williams, M. R.; Moody, C.; Arceneaux, L.-A.; Rinke, C.; White, K.; Sigman, M.E; “Analysis of black writing ink by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Forensic Sci. Int. 2009, 192, 97 – 103.


M. E. Sigman*, M. R. Williams, J. A. Castelbuono., J. G. Colca, C. Douglas Clark “Ignitable Liquid Classification and Identification Using the Summed-Ion Mass Spectrum” Instrumentation Sci. Technol. 2008, 36, 375 – 393.


M. E. Sigman,* M. R.Williams, and R. G. Ivy “Comparative Analysis of Gasolines by Covariance Mapping and Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 2007, 79(9), 3462-3468.

M. R. Williams, M. E. Sigman “Performance Testing of Commercial Containers for Collection and Storage of Fire Debris Evidence,” Journal of Forensic Science, 2007, 52(3), 579-585.


Bridge, C. M.; Powell, J.; Vomvoris, K. L.; MacInnis, J. M.; Williams, M. R.; Sigman*, M. E. “Characterization of Automobile Float Glass with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS),” Applied Spectroscopy, 2006, 60(10), 1181-1187.

M. E. Sigman,* M. Williams “Covariance Mapping in the Analysis of Ignitable Liquids by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem., 2006, 78, 1713 – 1718.


M. R. Williams, D. Fernandes, C. Bridge, D. Dorrien, S. Elliot and M. Sigman* “Adsorption Saturation and Chromatographic Distortion Effects on Passive Headspace Sampling with Activated Charcoal in Fire Debris Analysis,” J. Forensic Sci. 2005, 50(2), 316-325.