Whitehead, Frances A.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Decision theory and linear sequential unmasking in forensic fire debris analysis: A proposed workflow”. Forensic Chemistry (2022) Vol. 29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2022.100426


Thurn, Nicholas A.; Wood, Taylor; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Classification of ground-truth fire debris samples using artificial neural networks” Forensic Chemistry (2021) Vol. 23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2021.100313

Sigman, Michael E.; Williams, Mary R.; Thurn, Nicholas; Wood, Taylor “Validation of ground truth fire debris classification by supervised machine learning”, Forensic Chemistry (2021) Vol. 26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2021.100358

Corbally, Michelle A.; Williams, Mary R.; Chappell, Jessica N.; Sigman, Michael E. “Detecting Chemical Vapor Diffusion through Firefighter Turnout Gear”, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health” (2021) Vol. 18(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18094833


Sigman, M. E.; Williams, M. R. “Chemometric Applications in Fire Debris Analysis” WIREs Forensic Sci. (2020), https://doi.org/10.1002/wfs2.1368.


Allen, Alyssa; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Application of likelihood ratios and optimal decision thresholds in fire debris analysis based on a partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) model”, Forensic Chemistry (2019) Vol. 16. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2019.100188

Sigman, Michael E.; Williams, Mary R. “Advances in Fire Debris Analysis”, Separations (2019) Vol. 6(1). http://doi.org/10.3390/separations6010013


Turner, Dee A.; Williams, Mary; Sigman, Michael A.; Goodpaster, John V. “A Comprehensive Study of the Alteration of Ignitable Liquids by Weathering and Microbial Degradation”, Journal of Forensic Sciences (2018) Vol. 63(1), pg58-65. http://doi.org/10.1111/1556-4029.13527

Coulson, Richard; Williams, Mary R.; Allen, Alyssa; Akmeemana, Anuradha; Ni, Liqiang; Sigman, Michael E. “Model-effects on likelihood ratios for fire debris analysis”, Forensic Chemistry (2018) Vol. 7, p38-46. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.12.008

Thurn, Nicholas; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Application of Self-Organizing Maps to the Analysis of Ignitable Liquid and Substrate Pyrolysis Samples”, Separations (2018) Vol. 5(4) http://doi.org/10.3390/separations5040052

Allen, Alyssa; Williams, Mary R.; Thurn, Nicholas A.; Sigman, Michael E. “Model Distribution Effects on Likelihood Ratios in Fire Debris Analysis”, Separations (2018) Vol. 5(3). http://doi.org/10.3390/separations5030044


Dennis, Dana-Marie K.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Investigative probabilistic inferences of smokeless powder manufacturers utilizing a Bayesian network”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 3, p41-51. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2016.12.001

Akmeemana, Anuradha; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Major chemical compounds in the Ignitable Liquids Reference Collection and Substrate databases”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 5, p91-108. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.07.002

Kindell, Jessica H.; Williams, Mary R.; Sigman, Michael E. “Biodegradation of representative ignitable liquid components on soil”, Forensic Chemistry (2017) Vol. 6, p19-27. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2017.09.003


Dana-Marie K. Dennis, Mary R. Williams, Michael E. Sigman “Assessing the evidentiary value of smokeless powder comparisons”, Forensic Sci. International (2016) Vol. 259, p179–187.

Sigman, M. E.; Williams, M. R., “Assessing Evidentiary Value in Fire Debris Analysis by Chemometric Approaches”, Forensic Sci. International, (2016) 264, 113 – 121.


Zimmerman, H. A.; Meizel-Lambert, C.J.; Schultz, J.J., Sigman, M. E. “Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental and Non-skelatal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis”, Science and Justice, (2015) 55, 131 – 138.

Lopatka, M.; Sigman, M. E.; Sjerps, M. J.; Williams, M. R.; Vivo-Truyols, G. “Class-conditional feature modeling for ignitable liquid classification with substantial substrate contribution in fire debris analysis”, Forensic Sci. International. (2015), 252, 177 – 186.


Waddell, EE; Williams, MR; Sigman, ME* “Progress Toward the Determination of Correct Classification Rates in Fire Debris Analysis II:  Utilizing Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA),” J. Forensic Sci. (2014) 59(4), 927-935.

Waddell, EE; Frisch-Daiello, J; Williams, MR; Sigman ME*, “Hierarchical Cluster Analysis of Ignitable Liquids”, J. Forensic Sci. (2014) 59(5), 1198-1204.

Jessica L Frisch-Daiello, Erin E Waddell, Mary R Williams, Michael E. Sigman* “Application of self-organizing feature maps to analyze the relationships between ignitable liquids and selected mass spectral ions” Forensic Science International (2014) 236, 84-89.

Heather A. Zimmerman, John J. Schultz, Michael E. Sigman, “Preliminary Validation of Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence (HHXRF) Spectrometry; Distinguishing Osseous and Dental Tissue from Non-Bone Material of Similar Chemical Composition,” J. Forensic Sci. (2014) 60(2), 382 – 390.


Waddell E. E.;  Song E. T.; Rinke C. N.; Williams M. R.; Sigman* M. E. “Progress Toward the Determination of Correct Classification Rates in Fire Debris Analysis” J. Forensic Sci. (2013) 58(4), 887-896.


Rinke, CN; Williams MR; Brown C; Baudelet M; Richardson M; Sigman ME* “ Discriminant analysis in the presence of interferences: Combined application of target factor analysis and a Bayesian soft-classifier,” Analytica Chimica Acta, (2012) 13, 753:19-26.

Williams, M. R.; Sigman*, M. E.; Lewis, J.; McHugh Pitan, K. “Combined Target Factor Analysis and Bayesian Soft-Classification of Interference-Contaminated Samples: Forensic Fire Debris Analysis,” Forensic Sci. Int., (2012), 222, 373 – 386.


Rebecca L. Fidler Albo, Tamra Legron, Michael J. Gittings, Mark R. Elie, Erin Holland Saitta, Michael E. Sigman, Cherie L. Geiger*, Christian Clausen” Degradation of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) Using Mechanically Alloyed Mg/Pd“ Propellants Explos. Pyrotech. 2010, 35, 100 – 104.

Erin McIntee, Emilie Viglino, Caitlin Rinke, Stephanie Kumor, Liqiang Ni,, and Michael E. Sigman*, “Comparative Analysis of Automotive Paints by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Nonparametric Permutation Tests,” Spectrochimica Acta, B., 2010, 65, 542 – 548.

Erin McIntee, Emilie Viglino, Stephanie Kumor, Caitlin Rinke, Liqiang Ni,, and Michael E. Sigman*, “Nonparametric Permutation Test for Discrimination of Float Glass Samples Based on LIBS Spectra.”  Journal of Chemometrics, 2010, 24, 312-319.

Matthew Weidman, Matthieu Baudelet, Santiago Palanco, Michael Sigman, Paul J. Dagdigian, Martin Richardson “Nd:YAG-CO2 Dual-Pulse Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy of Organic Films” Optics Express, 2010, 18, 259 – 266.


Williams, M. R.; Moody, C.; Arceneaux, L.-A.; Rinke, C.; White, K.; Sigman, M.E; “Analysis of black writing ink by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry,” Forensic Sci. Int. 2009, 192, 97 – 103.

A. Pal, C. D. Clark, M. E. Sigman, D. K. Killinger* “Differential absorption lidar CO2 laser system for remote sensing of TATP related gases,” Applied Optics 2009, 48(4), B145-B150.

Michael E. Sigman*, C. Douglas Clark, Kimberly Painter, Chatham Milton, Ekaterina Simatos, Jessica L. Frisch, Meghan McCormick and Julie L. Bitter “Analysis of Oligomeric Peroxides by Tandem Mass Spectrometry” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2009, 23, 349 – 356.


A. M. Stearman*, E. Stierlin , M. E. Sigman, D. W. Roubik, and D. Dorrien “Stradivarius in the Jungle:  Traditional Knowledge and the Use of “Black Beeswax” Among the Yuquí of the Bolivian Amazon”, Human Ecology, 2008,  36, 149-159.

M. E. Sigman*, M. R. Williams, J. A. Castelbuono., J. G. Colca, C. Douglas Clark “Ignitable Liquid Classification and Identification Using the Summed-Ion Mass Spectrum” Instrumentation Sci. Technol. 2008, 36, 375 – 393.

M. E. Sigman,* C.  D. Clark, T. Caiano, R. Mullen “Analysis of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) and Synthetic Intermediates by ESI-MS, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom., 2008, 22, 84-90..


C M. Bridge, J Powell, K L Steele, M. E. Sigman*, “Forensic Comparative Glass Analysis by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy,” Spectrochimica Acta, B: 2007, 62, 1419-1425.

M. E. Sigman,* M. R.Williams, and R. G. Ivy  “Comparative Analysis of Gasolines by Covariance Mapping and Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem. 2007, 79(9), 3462-3468.

M. R. Williams, M. E. Sigman “Performance Testing of Commercial Containers for Collection and Storage of Fire Debris Evidence,” Journal of Forensic Science, 2007, 52(3), 579-585.


M. E. Sigman*, C. Douglas Clark, R. Fidler, C. L. Geiger and C. A. Clausen “Analysis of Triacetone Triperoxide (TATP) by GC-MS and GC-MS/MS By Electron and Chemical Ionization,” Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.  2006, 20, 2851-2857.

Bridge, C. M.; Powell, J.; Vomvoris, K. L.; MacInnis, J. M.; Williams, M. R.; Sigman*, M. E. “Characterization of Automobile Float Glass with Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS),” Applied Spectroscopy, 2006, 60(10), 1181-1187.

M. E. Sigman,* M. Williams “Covariance Mapping in the Analysis of Ignitable Liquids by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem., 2006, 78, 1713 – 1718.

M. E. Sigman*, P. Armstrong “Analysis of Oxidizer Salt Mixtures by ESI-MS,” Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom., 2006, 20, 427 – 432.


M. E. Sigman,* C. D. Clark, “2D Correlation Spectroscopy Techniques Applied to Ion Trap MS/MS Analysis: Nitroaromatics.” Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom., 2005, 19, 3731 – 3726.

M. E. Sigman,* P. Armstrong, J. M. MacInnis, M. Williams “The Equilibrium Partitioning Model Applied to RDX-Halide Complex Formation in Electrospray Ionnization Mass Spectrometry,” Anal. Chem., 2005, 77, 7434 – 7441.

M. Huang, R. Russo, B. G. Fookes and M. E. Sigman* “Analysis of Fiber Dyes by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) with Electrospray Ionization: Discriminating Between Dyes with Indistinguishable UV-Visible Absorption Spectra,” J. Forensic Sci 2005, 50(3), 526-534.

M. R. Williams, D. Fernandes, C. Bridge, D. Dorrien, S. Elliot and M. Sigman*  “Adsorption Saturation and Chromatographic Distortion Effects on Passive Headspace Sampling with Activated Charcoal in Fire Debris Analysis,” J. Forensic Sci. 2005, 50(2), 316-325.


R. A. Gardner, J.-G. Delcros, F. Konate, F. Breitbeil III, B. Martin, M. Sigman, M. Huang, and O. Phanstiel* IV “N1-Substituent Effects in the Selective Delivery of Polyamine-Conjugates into Cells Containing Active Polyamine Transporters,” J. Med. Chem. 2004, 47(24), 6055-6059.

Min Huang, Jehuda Yinon, and Michael E. Sigman* “Forensic Identification of Dyes Extracted from Textile Fibers by Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS),” J. Forensic Sci. 2004, 49(2), 238-249.

Gapeev, A., Sigman, M. and Yinon,* J. “Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Explosives: RDX Adduct Ions,” Rapid Comm Mass Spectrom. 2003, 17, 943-948.